Land art and site specific sculpture - land art uses the environment and its scale as its material. Concrete art is expressed in material itself with which the artist introduces her non-representational objective. Public art can be viewed and accessed by observers.
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Linear Sculpture - Lines in Sculpture

sculpture as the delineation and contour of form.

In sculpture, or rather plastic art, a line is most often is the place where two (or more) surfaces intersect. By depicting or creating a lines, one can suggest the presence of more than one virtual surface. Showing only delineation can result in linear sculpture - but also movement or direction alone. A line can be utilized to suggest symmetry - or its absence.

During the early seventies I became increasingly aware of the lines in my sculpture; it was the linear form which contained the sculpture. I not only started to explore the contours of my sculpture, but discovered new forms, which resulted from the connecting, or intersection of two bodies. What constitutes form is its describing delimitation. The interplay between contour and surface motivated me to evolve from making solid shapes towards describing the outlines. Lines suggest movement as well as that they describe space.

I have always been interested in surfaces and the delimitation of shape. Linear contours suggest shapes and forms. So early on I was able to suggest monumental forms by filtering excessive mass out of the equation and creating transparent geometrical sculptures, which reacted to their environment and the specificity of a site. Thus my site specific sculptures were born.

A linear stainless steel sculpture - a line delimiting geometric forms in space.
In the early seventies I proposed a stainless steel sculpture for a sports hall in Rotterdam. In imaginary planes, perpendicular and parallel to the facade of the building, I inscribed circles which made one, continuous spatial loop.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
A proposal for Capelle aan den IJssel consisted of two meandering lines - one an asphalt dike and the other a white, four meter high concrete wall undulating from the land into the reservoir.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
During the early seventies many architects and municipalities were not yet too ready to extend their boundaries beyond a sculpture installed in a given space. As I was already experimenting with minimalistic linear forms, I proposed to make a free-form loop of stainless steel pipe. Its undulating concrete base adapted to the curve of the sculpture, making a strong physical connection possible at the same time.
A stainless steel pipe sculpture was the first one based entirely on 
			the linear interpretation of the form.
My first sculptures during the sixties and the seventies consisted of two elements which are joined in a confluent manner. Continuity of line was my goal. Earlier sculptures were closed shapes; this stainless steel pipe sculpture was the first one based entirely on the linear interpretation of the form.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
This monumental linear sculpture was formed by hand, with the aid of a hydraulic press. It had to be transported at night because is was six meters wide. Below it can be seen after it was installed.
The round shape of this 
				garden is strengthened by the stainless steel endless linear 
				form.
In 1973 my proposal for "earthscape" was accepted by the city of Rotterdam. The location of the work was a twelve sided glass enclosed interior space open to the sky. The round shape of this garden is strengthened by the stainless steel endless linear form.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
This cube is a study of the linear movement resulting from the intersection of two curved planes, perpendicular to each other.
The linear demarcation of two intersecting planes.
To accentuate the resulting linear demarcation of two intersecting planes, I dotted this line - a way for me to say "this is what it is about".
in my work "arcos" a linear spatial contour results from the folded segments of a circle with a square inscribed.
in my work "arcos" a spatial contour results from four folded segments of smaller circles attached to the inscribed square of a larger circle.
Two delineated bronze forms joining.
bronze delineation
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
A few of my "monolinears" were etched on glass - my way to have an oscillating curve in space.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
This spatial line projects itself as a lemniscate; and, in essence, it possesses identical characteristics. It is my first "monolinear" which has been constructed from four circle segments - each with an arc of 95 degrees. So instead of just not being able to construct, it rises from the plane.; and, in essence, it possesses identical characteristics.
Two congruent sculptures called "monolinears" define the site. Geometric forms in space.
Two congruent sculptures called "monolinears" seem to be placed loose on the ground.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
The location of "sail" is not very far from the sea. Even though the wind would hardly move this linear sculpture, the effect of a wind blown sail is there. Two identical shapes come together for a part of their joint trajectory.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Two congruent linear contours, assembled in a perpendicular fashion - sharing one third of their individual path.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
One monolinear mirrors the other.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
After having been commissioned in 1978 to make a proposal for sculptures on seven sites in the new housing district of Duyvenkamp, in Maarssen, Holland, it was accepted a year later. The ten sculptural elements were to give a distinct character to Duyvenkamp, which looked pretty much the same as the adjacent other housing areas. At the same time the different artistic approaches in each area were to serve as an aid for orientation for the pedestrian or cyclist entering a particular district. My sculptures in Duyvenkamp are all variations on a linear theme: the circle and its projections. This work, "one", was constructed from two half- and two quarter circles, conjoined, they delimit an imaginary volume, fully constructed from the same radius - the center points forming a tetrahedron.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"two" The previous and next five images show my works in Maarssen, Holland. With linear stainless steel sculptures I identified the five entrances to this new housing district Duyvenkamp.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"three" identical elements help divide the bicycle route from the footpath. They help identify this otherwise monotonous area. Their linear forms are a graphical note between the soft greenery.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
The linear description of five equal sized cylinders intersecting each other in a perpendicular fashion.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"xyz" The linear description of three equal sized cylinders intersecting each other in a perpendicular fashion (or a sculptural selection of the describing lines of three identical cylinders around the x, y and z axes).
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
The main element is eight meters high. Here the circular form is the projection of its counterpart.
Linear sculpture; the line delimitinga spatial form in space.
I had a wedge-shaped area, with a conical form, between the diverging bicycle-/footpath and the entrance road, covered with a layer of asphalt. On this conical surface I projected a circular stainless steel line following the curved surface. This pure linear sculpture forms the introduction to the series of linear sculptures which are composed of projections of the circle; they are all constructed from tubular material.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
The morning sun projects the chromed monolinear form onto the surface on which it rests.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
A large (Ø10m) monolinear hangs from the ceiling of the LEAO School in Rotterdam. The large surrounding line encircles and defines the space below. The amplitude of the mobile is one meter.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"Lasso" was the first of my later sculptures making use of the spiral. before this work I employed two dimensional curved lines, combining them in such a way as to suggest a spiral movement.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
This sculpture consists of three 180° revolutions of a spiral. But the second revolution counters the two to which it is connected.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"Europa" as a silver brooch.
Two turns of a spiral diverge in opposite direction.
"Europa" as a silver ring.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"Surf" marks the entrance of the public swimming pool in Katwijk aan Zee in Holland. Two segments of a circle meet at the summit of the sculpture.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
In my second discontinuous sculpture, the curved lines make reference to a romanesque groin vault.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Two spirals depart from the same point - one spiraling to the right and the other to the left; before their second revolutions begin, they intersect. The result is a continuous line, where they began their journey through space and the second meeting making an abrupt end to their diverging movement.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Two spirals emerge from, and perpendicular to, the ground; during their revolution, one crosses over the other as their pitch differs. After they meet the ground as their tangent, their journey ends abruptly. This sculpture is actually a monument for professor Durrer, a prominent Dutch cardiologist. Instead of a bust of the man, I proposed to make a monument to his profession, thinking of the graphic lines of electrocardiograms.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
In this sculpture, the continuous linear movement actually happens at the four corners, where a spatial curve passes through a 90° angle. Only my pseudo spirals can do that.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
These curved stainless steel pipes emerge from the ground, in from the left corners of the four niches. At first they are parallel to the vertical facade of the sports center of Venray in the Netherlands.
secants separated circle segments which form the wings
My sculpture "insec" got its name because its wings reminded me of an insect, while at the same time I refer to the secants that separated the wings from the circular planes.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
This is a very elementary sculpture. The two curved lines meet at a ninety degree angle, the point where they meet being mitered. If the mitered surface would have been a moveable joint, the two half circled could be rotated until the curves close and form a full circle.
Two quarter circle segments are joined in a continuous fashion and perpendicular to each other. .
2.2.3D - a steel pipe constructed from hydraulically pressed segments - a linear sculpture in Spijkenisse, Holland. The monumental size of the sculpture (its summit of the arch is eight meters above the ground) causes the perspective to play games with your perception.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
This wire exercises a modified spiral - a totally free form, like many others lying around my studios.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
An equilateral triangle is the projection of this linear sculpture. The projection perpendicular to this, presents itself as an ellipse.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Just like the sculpture above, this one has two extreme sides. here I photographed my model in my stretched hand, simulating the final effect which the sculpture will have. The monumental stainless steel sculpture was installed on one of the traffic circles in Heemskerk, Holland.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Like an early bronze sculpture, which I made in the sixties, I called this stainless steel linear sculpture "discontinued continuity". At the time, during the sixties, I was making sculptures, which were about volume and mass; this sculpture is about the linear aspect in my sculpture - movement along a line.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"Waves" was an eighty four meter long sculpture with a seven arcs zigzag in The Hague.
Five arcs are joined by axial jointed movable connections.
"BNG" is a multiple, which got its name from the bank which commissioned me to make an edition of this work. Each  of the series consists of five brass pipes, which swivel at the joints. The owners of the multiple can make endless variations. In this way each owner always has a unique sculpture, even though there are more of them. "BNG" resulted in the large work below.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Like the trails of bouncing balls, these curves join together and form a curvilinear interplay of movements, exploiting the forms of a manmade hill in the center Of the town of Houten, near Utrecht, Holland.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Preceding the "BNG" and "waves" sculptures was "opening the arctic circle", a twenty meter long stainless steel sculpture in Finnish Lapland. To the local press I jokingly remarked that this was my first figurative sculpture, because it actually is an opened circle.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
After having installed "opening the arctic circle" in Finnish Lapland, I took a small electric lamp up the slope of the Pyhä Tunturi, one of the fells around Kemijärvi. During  two-second exposures I drew the contours of my sculpture in front backdrop of the arctic landscape, one of the fells around Kemijärvi.
Two monumental circular lines encapsulate the bridge on both side of the river.
The A8 highway over the river Zaan in Holland - two monumental circular lines encapsulate the bridge on both side of the river.
Linear sculpture; curved stainless steel pipes move through space, changing direction at every meeting point.
"Arcadia" is the name if this housing area in Heerhugowaard, the Netherlands. I adopted this name for my sculpture, which is constructed from circle segments of varying arcs. These are assembled in a seemingly random way, to perform a dance, leaping continuously higher to form an arch over the bicycle rout connecting two adjacent quarters of the city.
One line, describes two halves of a circle, opened  by pivoting them at the top.
One line, describes two halves of a circle, opened up to form a projection of an ellipse for cars approaching the roundabout along one of the axes of the two intersection roads - while those traveling perpendicular to that axis see what appears to be a triangle standing on its base.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Accompanying the movement of the cars on the highway, curved lines form a ballet dance from one side of the road to the other - Varkaus, Finland.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Curved lines dancing a rondo in Collins Park in Miami Beach, Florida. My proposal in 2005 describes the space in which a sculpture was projected by the city; the space itself was to become the sculpture in the center of which people could identify with the artwork.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
"Making waves" is the motto under which my proposal for Muotiala, a new town of Tampere was entered into a competition. Monumental linears would mark the slope of the hillside - reaching into the skies above the low-rise Finnish buildings.
A stainless steel curve shows the trajectory of movement through the Denver urban space.
A monumental stainless steel curvilinear dashes through the space surrounding the plaza, ricochets off its tangent facade of the parking garage and points to its counterparts on the other side of the street.
Curved line segmentss on Justice Center Plaza trace the movement through the urban space of Denver.
Separately installed stainless steel linear shapes, virtually continue in space and reappear in unexpected places. But from a greater distance the continuity can be comprehended.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
Curved stainless steel strokes of the pen describe urban spaces in Denver.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
2006 - a proposal for Denver, Colorado. This main sculpture for the plaza of the judicial center is constructed from two immense "C" shaped stainless steel pipe circle segments and a shorter segment connecting their summits like a lintel.
Linear sculpture; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
The 2013 proposal for a linear stainless steel sculpture, constructed from two half circles and the hypotenuse of the angle between the planes on which they lie.

 

Linear forms in land art and environmental projects

Linear forms in urban land art; the line delimiting geometric forms in space.
In 1969  my first opportunity arose to make an urban land art project, incorporating various elements from our environment and artifacts such as three linear elements evoking ducts which bridge the undulating earth below them.
Linear land art sculpture  and  geometric forms in space.
My third land art project was to be in Capelle aan den IJssel, near Rotterdam. An elongated concrete, serpent-like form came up out of the surface of the land, continuing into the water reservoir, where it rose up with water being pumped up to its top and continuously flowing downwards over its surface. Mirroring this shape, a meandering little waterway made its path into the land.
>> Linear element - curbstones form a line delimiting geometric forms in space.
In 1971 Zwijndrecht accept my proposal for my land art project on the outskirts of the town. I called it the Walburg project. One of the elements consists of a line of natural stone curb, perpendicular to the base of a high tension pylon which I included in the project.


3D anaglyph photographs of my sculpture
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